Design and Optimization of Ecofriendly One-Pot Synthesis of 2,4,5-Triaryl-1<i>H</i>-imidazoles by Three-Component Condensation Using Response Surface Methodology

<div><p></p><p>Phase-transfer-catalyzed, highly versatile, and high-yielding protocol for the synthesis of 2,4,5-triaryl-1H-imidazoles was developed through response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of different solvents, reaction paths, and phase-transfer catalysts (PTCs) in different concentrations were envisioned. Three independent variables (catalyst, catalyst loading, and solvent volume) identified by one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) study were screened through full factorial design at two levels. The analysis of variance results suggested the significance of catalyst PEG400 and solvent glacial acetic acid at 5 h reaction. The optimum reaction conditions suggested by the RSM were the use of PEG400 (10.61 mol%) and glacial acetic acid (10.71 mL) for 5 h cycloocondensation. The experimental yield of 4,5-diphenyl-2-nitrophenyl-1H-imidazole (97%) was in agreement with predicted yield (97.5%).</p> </div>