Dataset for: TOXICITY OF DISSOLVED AND PRECIPITATED FORMS OF BARIUM TO A FRESHWATER ALGA (<i>CHLORELLA</i> SP.12) AND WATER FLEA (<i>CERIODAPHNIA DUBIA</i>)

Barium is present at elevated concentrations in oil and gas produced waters (PWs) and has no international water quality guideline value to assess the potential risk of adverse effects to aquatic biota. Sulfate concentration largely controls the solubility of barium in aquatic systems with insoluble barium sulfate (barite) assumed to be less bioavailable and less toxic than dissolved barium. We exposed aquatic biota to dissolved barium only and to a mixture of dissolved and precipitated barium. The chronic dissolved barium 48-h growth rate inhibition EC10 and EC50 values for the tropical freshwater alga <i>Chlorella</i> sp. 12 were 40 mg/L (27-54 mg/L 95% confidence limits (CL)), and 240 mg/L (200-280 mg/L 95% CL), respectively. The acute EC10 and EC50 values for 48-h immobilisation of the water flea (<i>Ceriodaphnia dubia</i>) by dissolved barium were 14 mg/L (13-15 mg/L 95% CL) and 17 mg /L (16-18 mg/L 95% CL), respectively. <i>Chlorella</i> sp. 12 was significantly more sensitive to precipitated barium than dissolved barium while the opposite seemed likely for <i>C. dubia</i>. <i>Ceriodaphnia dubia</i> was predicted to be chronically sensitive to dissolved barium at concentrations measured in PWs and receiving waters, based on a predicted chronic EC10 of 1.7 mg/L derived from the acute EC50/10. Further chronic toxicity data that accounts for barium toxicity in dissolved and precipitated forms are required to derive a barium guideline for freshwater biota.