DENV NS1 induces VE-cadherin disarray, which is rescued by inhibiting MIF or autophagy.

(A) HMEC-1 cells were treated with PBS, 293T-NS1, 293T-NS1 mixed with ISO-1, 293T-NS1 mixed with 3-MA, ISO-1 only or 3-MA only. After 6 h, the cells were fixed, and IFA was applied by anti-VE-cadherin antibodies. The fluorescence images were acquired by a FV1000 confocal microscopy. The fluorescent intensity was quantified by Image J software and cytosolic/perinuclear versus barrier/marginal VE-cadherin ratio is shown in (B) by measuring 50 cells for each condition. *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001.