Cytotoxic Effect of Chitosan-H, Resveratrol, β-Carotene and Propolis and their Chitosan Hydrogels on Balb/C Mouse 3T3 Fibroblast Cells

Background/purposes: The beneficial effect (bond strength and longevity) of the addition of different chitosan/antioxidant hydrogels to dental restoratives was reported. However, it still needs to be verified whether their presence would not damage the pulp cells. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relative cytotoxic effect of resveratrol, propolis and β-carotene in relation to their respective chitosan/antioxidant hydrogels on mouse Balb/c mouse 3T3 fibroblast cells. Materials and Methods: The mentioned hydrogels were prepared by the dispersion of the corresponding components in glycerol and acetic acid with the addition of the chitosan polymer. The cell survival rate was determined over a 24hour period according to the standard MTT assay. Results and Conclusion: The Kruskal-Wallis Multiple-Comparison Test and Bonferroni test showed significant differences in the cell survival rates (p<0.05) amongst resveratrol (31%), propolis(64%) and β-carotene (95%):Also amongst chitosan(114%), chitosan/resveratrol(87%) and resveratrol(31%); chitosan(114%), chitosan/β-carotene(100%) and β-carotene(95%); chitosan(114%), chitosan/propolis(95%) and propolis(64%). To conclude, this study showed: 1) that chitosan-H has a positive effect on the cell survival rate of Balb/c mouse 3T3 fibroblast cells and therefore most probably also on human pulp fibroblast cells, 2) these chitosan hydrogels are safe to be used to improve the bond strength and longevity of a tooth dental material, and 3) it further proved that chitosan in itself improved the cell survival rate of various antioxidants. The mean cell survival rate was found to be: resveratrol (31%); propolis (64%); β-carotene (95%), chitosan+resveratrol (87%), chitosan+propolis (95%), chitosan+ β-carotene (100%) and chitosan (114%).