Crossin & Williams Supplementary Materials Table from Migratory life histories explain the extreme egg-size dimorphism of <i>Eudyptes</i> penguins

2016-09-27T14:16:26Z (GMT) by Glenn T. Crossin Tony D. Williams
When successive stages in the life history of an animal directly overlap, physiological conflicts can arise resulting in carryover effects from one stage to another. The extreme egg-size dimorphism (ESD) of <i>Eudyptes</i> penguins, where the first laid A-egg is approximately 18–57% smaller than the second laid B-egg, has interested researchers for decades. Recent studies have linked variation in this trait to a carryover effect of migration that limits the physiology of yolk production and egg sizes. We assembled the data on ESD and estimates of migration–reproduction overlap in penguin species and use phylogenetic methods to test the idea that migration–reproduction overlap explains variation in ESD. We show that migration overlap is generally restricted to <i>Eudyptes</i> relative to non-<i>Eudyptes</i> penguins, and that this overlap (defined as the amount of time that egg production occurs on land versus at sea during homeward migration) is significantly and positively correlated with the degree of ESD in <i>Eudyptes</i>. In the non-<i>Eudyptes</i> species however, ESD was unrelated to migration overlap as these species mostly produce their clutches on land. Our results support the recent hypothesis that extreme ESD of <i>Eudyptes</i> penguins evolved, in part, in response to selection for a pelagic overwinter migration behaviour. This resulted in a temporal overlap, and thus a constraint on, the physiology of follicle development, leading to smaller A-egg size and greater ESD.