Constituents from <i><i>Apium graveolens</i></i> and their anti-inflammatory effects

<p>A phthalide glycoside, (3<i>R</i>, 4<i>R</i>)-4-<i>O</i>-<i>β</i>-D-glucopyranosyl-senkyunolide (<b>1</b>), and a megastigmane glycoside, (6<i>S</i>, 7<i>R</i>)-3-oxo-megastigma-4, 8-dien-7-<i>O</i>-<i>β</i>-D-glucoside (<b>2</b>), along with two known aglycones (<b>3–4</b>), were isolated from the 70% EtOH extract of fresh whole grass of <i>Apium graveolens</i> L. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. All of these compounds were tested for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in the RAW 264.7 macrophages. Among them, compounds <b>3</b> and <b>4</b> showed potent inhibitory activity against LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages, with IC<sub>50</sub> values of 24.0 ± 2.1 μM and 28.6 ± 2.4 μM, respectively.</p>