Comparative bioaccumulation and effects of purified and cellular extract of cylindrospermopsin to freshwater fish Hoplias malabaricus

Many tropical freshwater ecosystems are impacted by cyanobacteria blooms increasing the risk of cyanotoxins exposure to aquatic organisms while human populations may be exposed by eating fish, drinking water, or dermal swimming. However, few toxicological data are available on the influence of cyanobacteria blooms in particular, cylindrospermopsin (CYN) on Brazilian neotropical fish. A number of studies demonstrated the ability of CYN to bioaccumulate in freshwater organisms and consequently enter the human food chain. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of CYN following single intraperitoneal injection (50 µg/kg) of purified CYN (CYNp) or aqueous extract of CYN-producing cyanobacteria extract (CYNex) after 7 or 14 days. Biomarkers such as histopathology (liver), oxidative stress (liver and brain), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity (muscle and brain) were utilized in order to assess the influence of CYN on Hoplias malabaricus. In terms of AChE activity, administration of CYNex and CYNp both muscle and brains were used as target tissues. In brain an increase of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels was noted suggesting an imbalance in redox cycling. The majority of biomarkers did not present significant alterations in liver, but an elevation in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activities was found. Different profiles of GST activity were observed in both studied groups (CYNex and CYNp) while LPO (CYNex and CYNp) and protein carbonylation (PCO) (CYNp) levels increased after exposure to CYN. The incidence of necrosis, melanomacrophages centers, and free melanomacrophages were detected as evidence of cell death and immune responses. Nonprotein thiols (NPT) levels were not markedly affected in both exposed groups. Data demonstrated that in vivo exposure to CYN produced biochemical and morphological disturbances in liver and brain of H. malabaricus.