Comparative Analysis of the Endogenous Peptidomes Displayed by HLA-B*27 and Mamu-B*08: Two MHC Class I Alleles Associated with Elite Control of HIV/SIV Infection

Indian rhesus macaques are arguably the most reliable animal models in AIDS research. In this species the MHC class I allele Mamu-B*08, among others, is associated with elite control of SIV replication. A similar scenario is observed in humans where the expression of HLA-B*27 or HLA-B*57 has been linked to slow or no progression to AIDS after HIV infection. Despite having large differences in their primary structure, it has been reported that HLA-B*27 and Mamu-B*08 display peptides with sequence similarity. To fine-map the Mamu-B*08 binding motif and assess its similarities with that of HLA-B*27, we affinity purified the peptidomes bound to these MHC class I molecules and analyzed them by LC-MS, identifying several thousands of endogenous ligands. Sequence analysis of both sets of peptides revealed a degree of similarity in their binding motifs, especially at peptide position 2 (P2), where arginine was present in the vast majority of ligands of both allotypes. In addition, several differences emerged from this analysis: (i) ligands displayed by Mamu-B*08 tended to be shorter and to have lower molecular weight, (ii) Mamu-B*08 showed a higher preference for glutamine at P2 as a suboptimal binding motif, and (iii) the second major anchor position, found at PΩ, was much more restrictive in Mamu-B*08. In this regard, HLA-B*27 bound efficiently peptides with aliphatic, aromatic (including tyrosine), and basic C-terminal residues while Mamu-B*08 preferred peptides with leucine and phenylalanine in this position. Finally, in silico estimations of binding efficiency and competitive binding assays to Mamu-B*08 of several selected peptides revealed a good correlation between the characterized anchor motif and binding affinity. These results deepen our understanding of the molecular basis of the presentation of peptides by Mamu-B*08 and can contribute to the detection of novel SIV epitopes restricted by this allotype.