Co-Grafting of Amino–Poly(ethylene glycol) and Magainin I on a TiO<sub>2</sub> Surface: Tests of Antifouling and Antibacterial Activities

An antimicrobial peptide, Magainin I (Mag), was grafted to a titanium oxide surface, via an antiadhesive poly­(ethylene glycol) (PEG) cross-linker. The latter plays a 2-fold part, being antiadhesive, and enabling the covalent immobilization of the peptide. The functionalization was characterized at each step by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The antiadhesive properties of PEG, and antibacterial activity of the anchored Magainin I, were individually tested toward adsorption of bovin serum albumin (BSA) proteins, and against Gram positive bacteria, Listeria ivanovii, respectively. The results reveal that adhesion of both proteins and bacteria have been considerably reduced, accompanied by an inhibition of the growth of remaining adhered bacteria. This work thus offers a novel approach to functionalize oxide surfaces against biofilms and to measure the so-obtained properties in each of the successive steps of a biofilm formation.