Chemical composition and antiproliferative activity of <i>Croton campestris</i> A.St.-Hil. essential oil

<p>Herein, the antiproliferative potential of the essential oil obtained from fresh leaves of <i>Croton campestris</i> against human tumour cell lines was investigated for the first time. Furthermore, the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation had the composition determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Ten major components were identified that comprised 91.59% of the total content, with 23.8% consisting of <i>(Z)</i>-caryophyllene and 16.08% consisting of <i>γ</i>-elemene as main components. The cytotoxic activity was observed mainly for breast (MCF-7) and colon (HT-29) human tumour cell lines, with GI<sub>50</sub> (50% growth inhibition) concentration of 8.61 and 9.94 μg/mL, respectively. The results of this study showed that the essential oil obtained from <i>Croton campestris</i> A.St.-Hil. represents a potential source for the search of new antitumour agents.</p>