Chemical and stress exposures assessed included 69 human and animal studies on developmental outcomes from combined exposure.

The sum of the number of studies for either exogenous chemical or psychosocial stress is greater than 69 because some studies reported more than one stressor variable. Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of studies which were included in the quantitative review. Under the stress/stressor exposure, “multiple stressors” refers to a random schedule administered in two rat studies consisting of exposure to each of the following stressors: mouse cage, food & water deprivation, empty water bottle, damp bedding, cage tilting, noise, crowding, alone in cage, alone in cage, no bedding and new partner [92, 93].