Chemical and biomolecular analyses to discriminate three <i>taxa</i> of <i>Pistacia</i> genus from Sardinia Island (Italy) and their antifungal activity

<p>This work reports the results and the comparison concerning the chemical and biomolecular analyses and the antifungal activity of three wild <i>Pistacia</i> species (Anacardiaceae) from Sardinia. Volatile oils from leaves and twigs of <i>Pistacia</i> x <i>saportae</i>, <i>Pistacia lentiscus</i> and <i>Pistacia terebinthus</i> were characterised using GC-FID and GC-MS techniques and tested against some fungal strains. Two DNA nuclear regions (ITS and 5S-rRNA-NTS) were amplified through PCR technique and sequenced. The three **<i>Pistacia</i> have similar chemical profile, although there are some important quantitative differences. The analysis of ITS and 5S-rRNA-NTS regions, reveals a species-specific nucleotide variation among the three **<i>taxa</i>. This method could emerge as a powerful tool for the species identification, especially because the discrimination of these three **<i>taxa</i> appears difficult for non-expert botanists. Concerning the antifungal activity, <i>P. lentiscus</i> and <i>P.</i> x <i>saportae</i> show the highest activity against <i>Cryptococcus neoformans</i>, with a MIC value of 0.32 μL/mL.</p>