Chemical and biological studies on <i>Bridelia ferruginea</i> grown in Nigeria

<p>Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of dried leaves of <i>Bridelia ferruginea</i> led to the isolation and identification of fourteen compounds (<b>1</b>–<b>14</b>): compound <b>1</b> [mixture of palmitic, stearic and oleic acids], stearyl monoester of 2-<i>O</i>-<i>β</i>-ᴅ-glucosylglycerol (<b>2</b>), 6<i>β</i>-hydroxy-(20<i>R</i>)-24-ethylcholest-4-en-3-one (<b>3a</b>), 6<i>β</i>-hydroxy-(20<i>R</i>)-24-ethylcholest-4,22-dien-3-one (<b>3b</b>), lutein (<b>4</b>), vomifoliol (<b>5</b>), corilagin (<b>6</b>), kaempferide-3-<i>O</i>-<i>β</i>-ᴅ-glucoside (<b>7</b>), myricetin (<b>8</b>), isomericitrin (<b>9</b>), isoquercetin (<b>10</b>), myricitrin (<b>11</b>), quercitrin (<b>12</b>), rutin (<b>13</b>), and <i>β</i>-sitosterol glucoside (<b>14</b>). The total extract exhibited moderate activity towards CB2 receptor and 90% inhibition against leishmanial pathogen <i>Trypanosoma brucei</i>. Compound <b>4</b> exhibited 73% displacement in CB2 receptor with IC<sub>50</sub> 56.47 μM, and 93% inhibition towards <i>T. brucei</i> with IC<sub>50</sub> 4.16 μM. Compound <b>11</b> showed 99% inhibition towards <i>Escherichia coli</i> with IC<sub>50</sub> 1.123 μM.</p>