CHARACTERIZATION OF CLOGGING MATERIAL FROM HORIZONTAL SUBSURFACE FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEMS

<div><p>ABSTRACT This study aimed to characterize the material composition responsible for clogging the porous medium of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSF–CW) systems, which is detrimental to a proper system operation. Six completely clogged HSSF–CWs were used after treatment of swine wastewater. Operating conditions of these systems were named CW–C (HSSF– CW 1 and HSSF–CW 4, non-cultivated, i.e. controls), CW–T (HSSF–CW 2 and HSSF–CW 5, cultivated with Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.)), and CW–A (HSSF–CW 3 and HSSF–CW 6, cultivated with alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides)). The results showed that most of the clogging material was composed of total fixed solids (95, 84, and 82% in CW–C, CW–T, and CW–A, respectively). However, total volatile solids (TVS) mostly affected pore clogging. The larger accumulations and productions of TVS in CWs might have originated from dead plants.</p></div>