CCWI2017: F106 'Water and Energy Efficiency in Bulk Water Systems'

Water losses and energy efficiency in supply systems is an actual concern for utilities. While the methodologies for water losses and energy efficiency assessment have been developed, their application in bulk water supply systems is limited. This paper provides data on water losses levels and energy efficiency performance of three Portuguese bulk water supply systems that can be benchmarked with similar systems worldwide. In addition, it points out major uncertainties in water balances calculation in such systems and identifies constraints in applying the methodology. The usefulness of computing the energy balance for efficiency assessment in bulk supply systems is demonstrated.