This paper summarises the latest evidence regarding the significance of the first 1000 days, and the biological, global, environmental and social factors that influence children's outcomes during this critical period of development (and beyond). The paper revealed that there are multiple influences on children's development, starting from pre-conception, and at the level of the individual child, the family, the community, and broader society. One of the key discoveries was how the foetus uses 'cues' provided by their mother's physical and mental states to 'predict' the kind of world they will be born into, and adapts accordingly.<br>