Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from an urban forest fragment in Central Amazon (Brazil): Effects of opening areas on abundance, richness, and composition

<div><p>ABSTRACT We assessed the immature stages of Ceratopogonidae (Diptera) in artificial containers in an urban forest fragment in Manaus (Brazil), including their behavioral, biological and ecological information. In addition, we evaluated the effects of deforestation in an open and forested area on Ceratopogonidae communities. Immatures were sampled between August 2012 and July 2014 in artificial containers installed in both habitat types. We collected 685 immatures of seven morpho-species of Bezzia Kieffer, Culicoides Latreille, Dasyhelea Kieffer, Forcipomyia Meigen, and Palpomyia Meigen. In the open area, we recorded higher temperature and electrical conductivity values than in the forested area; however, these variables did not differ between seasons. Water volume was higher in open area and in rainy season, while pH was similar in both areas and seasons. Species richness was higher in forested area, but did not differ between seasons. We did not record differences in abundance between areas or seasons. Community composition differed between areas, but not between seasons. We provide the first records of Culicoides (Hoffmania) insignis Lutz and C. (Haematomyidium) quasiparaensis Clastrier in artificial containers from the state of Amazonas. Our results suggest that the preservation of forested areas in Amazonas is fundamental for the maintenance of the life cycle of some species of Ceratopogonidae.</p></div>