Bismuth Doped Lanthanum Ferrite Perovskites as Novel Cathodes for Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Bismuth is doped to lanthanum strontium ferrite to produce ferrite-based perovskites with a composition of La0.8‑xBixSr0.2FeO3‑δ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) as novel cathode material for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells. The perovskite properties including oxygen nonstoichiometry coefficient (δ), average valence of Fe, sinterability, thermal expansion coefficient, electrical conductivity (σ), oxygen chemical surface exchange coefficient (Kchem), and chemical diffusion coefficient (Dchem) are explored as a function of bismuth content. While σ decreases with x due to the reduced Fe4+ content, Dchem and Kchem increase since the oxygen vacancy concentration is increased by Bi doping. Consequently, the electrochemical performance is substantially improved and the interfacial polarization resistance is reduced from 1.0 to 0.10 Ω cm2 at 700 °C with Bi doping. The perovskite with x = 0.4 is suggested as the most promising composition as solid oxide fuel cell cathode material since it has demonstrated high electrical conductivity and low interfacial polarization resistance.