Biological parameters and thermal requirements of Trichogramma pretiosum reared on Helicoverpa armigera eggs

<div><p>Abstract: The objective of this work was to determine the biological parameters and thermal requirements of Trichogramma pretiosum TM strain reared on Helicoverpa armigera eggs. A card containing 20 eggs of H. armigera was offered for each T. pretiosum female, at temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30 and 32°C. All life stages of T. pretiosum were observed under the given temperature conditions. The optimum temperature for the parasitism of T. pretiosum was 25°C, and the highest longevity was found at the same temperature. The highest parasitoid emergence rates occurred at temperatures of 22, 25 and 28°C. The highest proportion of T. pretiosum individuals emerged per egg was observed at 18°C. Concerning the sex ratio, the highest proportion of females occurred at 28°C, and the highest percentage of parasitism viability was observed at this same temperature. The lowest thermal threshold for total preimaginal development and thermal requirements of T. pretiosum were 10.82°C and 134.55 degree-days, respectively. The estimated number of generations of T. pretiosum in the average temperatures of municipality of Bom Jesus, state of Piauí, Brazil is four per month.</p></div>