Biological activities of organic extracts of four <i>Aureobasidium pullulans</i> varieties isolated from extreme marine and terrestrial habitats

<div><p>We report on the screening for biological activities of organic extracts from seven strains that represent four varieties of the fungus <i>Aureobasidium pullulans</i>, that is <i>A. pullu</i><i>l</i><i>ans</i> var. <i>melanogenum</i>, <i>A. pullulans</i> var. <i>pullulans</i>, <i>A. pullulans</i> var. <i>subglaciale</i> and <i>A. pullulans</i> var. <i>namibiae</i>. We monitored haemolysis, cytotoxicity, antioxidant capacity and growth inhibition against three bacterial species. The haemolytic activity of <i>A. pullulans</i> var. <i>pullulans</i> EXF-150 strain was due to five different haemolytically active fractions. Extracts from all of the other varieties contained at least one haemolytically active fraction. Short-term exposure of cell lines to these haemolytically active organic extracts resulted in more than 95% cytotoxicity. Strong antioxidant capacity, corresponding to 163.88 μg ascorbic acid equivalent per gram of total solid, was measured in the organic extract of the strain EXF-3382, obtained from <i>A. pullulans</i> var. <i>melanogenum</i>, isolated from the deep sea. Organic extracts from selected varieties of <i>A. pullulans</i> exhibited weak antibacterial activities.</p></div>