Bioassay-guided fractionation of a hepatoprotective and antioxidant extract of pea by-product

<div><p>The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the hydroalcoholic extract (PE) of pea (<i>Pisum sativum</i> L.) by-product were evaluated, using CCl4-induced oxidative stress and hepatic damage in rats. These activities were assessed via measuring alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein and albumin, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), protein thiols (PSH), nitrite/nitrate levels, glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities, as well as, histopathological evaluation. PE revealed significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities mostly found in n-butanol fraction. Chromatographic fractionation of this active fraction led to the isolation of five flavonoid glycosides <i>namely</i>, quercetin-3-<i>O</i>-sophorotrioside (<b>1</b>), quercetin-3-<i>O</i>-rutinoside (<b>2</b>), quercetin-3-<i>O</i>-(6″″-<i>O</i>-<i>E</i> sinapoyl)-sophorotrioside (<b>3</b>), quercetin-3-<i>O</i>-(6″″-<i>O</i>-<i>E</i> feruloyl)-sophorotrioside (<b>4</b>) and quercetin-3-<i>O</i>-β-D-glucopyranoside (<b>5</b>). The isolated compounds were quantified in PE, using a validated HPLC method and the nutritional composition of pea by-product was also investigated. Our results suggest that pea by-product contained biologically active constituents which can be utilised to obtain high value added products for nutraceutical use.</p></div>