Autophagy regulates glucose-mediated root meristem activity by modulating ROS production in <i>Arabidopsis</i>

<p>Glucose produced from photosynthesis is a key nutrient signal regulating root meristem activity in plants; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we show that, by modulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, the conserved macroautophagy/autophagy degradation pathway contributes to glucose-regulated root meristem maintenance. In <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i> roots, a short exposure to elevated glucose temporarily suppresses constitutive autophagosome formation. The autophagy-defective <i>autophagy-related gene</i> (<i>atg</i>) mutants have enhanced tolerance to glucose, established downstream of the glucose sensors, and accumulate less glucose-induced ROS in the root tips. Moreover, the enhanced root meristem activities in the <i>atg</i> mutants are associated with improved auxin gradients and auxin responses. By acting with AT4G39850/ABCD1 (ATP-binding cassette D1; Formerly PXA1/peroxisomal ABC transporter 1), autophagy plays an indispensable role in the glucose-promoted degradation of root peroxisomes, and the <i>atg</i> mutant phenotype is partially rescued by the overexpression of <i>ABCD1</i>. Together, our findings suggest that autophagy is an essential mechanism for glucose-mediated maintenance of the root meristem.</p> <p><b>Abbreviation:</b> ABA: abscisic acid; ABCD1: ATP-binding cassette D1; ABO: ABA overly sensitive; AsA: ascorbic acid; ATG: autophagy related; CFP: cyan fluorescent protein; Co-IP: co-immunoprecipitation; DAB: 3’,3’-diaininobenzidine; DCFH-DA: 2’,7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate; DR5: a synthetic auxin response element consists of tandem direct repeats of 11 bp that included the auxin-responsive TGTCTC element; DZ: differentiation zone; EZ, elongation zone; GFP, green fluorescent protein; GSH, glutathione; GUS: β-glucuronidase; HXK1: hexokinase 1; H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>: hydrogen peroxide; IAA: indole-3-acetic acid; IBA: indole-3-butyric acid; KIN10/11: SNF1 kinase homolog 10/11; MDC: monodansylcadaverine; MS: Murashige and Skoog; MZ: meristem zone; NBT: nitroblue tetrazolium; NPA: 1-N-naphtylphthalamic acid; OxIAA: 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid; PIN: PIN-FORMED; PLT: PLETHORA; QC: quiescent center; RGS1: Regulator of G-protein signaling 1; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SCR: SCARECROW; SHR, SHORT-ROOT; SKL: Ser-Lys-Leu; SnRK1: SNF1-related kinase 1; TOR: target of rapamycin; UPB1: UPBEAT1; WOX5: WUSCHEL related homeobox 5; Y2H: yeast two-hybrid; YFP: yellow fluorescent protein</p>