Automatic Construction of the Initial Orbitals for Efficient Generalized Valence Bond Calculations of Large Systems

We propose an efficient general strategy for generating initial orbitals for generalized valence bond (GVB) calculations which makes routine black-box GVB calculations on large systems feasible. Two schemes are proposed, depending on whether the restricted Hartree–Fock (RHF) wave function is stable (scheme I) or not (scheme II). In both schemes, the first step is the construction of active occupied orbitals and active virtual orbitals. In scheme I, active occupied orbitals are composed of the valence orbitals (the inner core orbitals are excluded), and the active virtual orbitals are obtained from the original virtual space by requiring its maximum overlap with the virtual orbital space of the same system at a minimal basis set. In scheme II, active occupied orbitals and active virtual orbitals are obtained from the set of unrestricted natural orbitals (UNOs), which are transformed from two sets of unrestricted HF spatial orbitals. In the next step, the active occupied orbitals and active virtual ones are separately transformed to localized orbitals. Localized occupied and virtual orbital pairs are formed using the Kuhn–Munkres (KM) algorithm and are used as the initial guess for the GVB orbitals. The optimized GVB wave function is obtained using the second-order self-consistent-field algorithm in the GAMESS program. With this procedure, GVB energies have been obtained for the lowest singlet and triplet states of polyacenes (up to decacene with 96 pairs) and the singlet ground state of two di-copper–oxygen–ammonia complexes. We have also calculated the singlet–triplet gaps for some polyacenes and the relative energy between two di-copper–oxygen–ammonia complexes with the block-correlated second-order perturbation theory based on the GVB reference.