Assessment of the antiproliferative and antigenotoxic activity and phytochemical screening of aqueous extracts of Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl. (ADOXACEAE)

<div><p>ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and antigenotoxic activity of Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl. aqueous extracts on the cell cycle of Allium cepa L. as well as determine the phenolic compounds in such extracts. S. australis inflorescences and leaves of two accessions were used for aqueous extract preparation at concentrations: 0.003 g/ml and 0.012 g/ml. A. cepa bulbs were rooted in distilled water and, subsequently, placed in treatments for 24 hours. Rootlets were collected and fixed in modified Carnoy’s solution for 24 hours and kept. The squash technique was performed for slide preparation. Root tips were smashed and stained with 2% acetic orcein, and a total of 4000 cells per treatment were analyzed. The phenolic compounds were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and data was analyzed using the Scott-Knott test. The results show that S. australis aqueous extracts have antiproliferative potential. Besides, the extracts prepared from S. australis leaves of both accessions at a concentration of 0.012 g/ml have shown antigenotoxic activity. The phytochemical analysis allowed us to determine the presence of flavonoids and phenolic acids, of which kaempferol and chrologenic acid were the most predominant compounds in the extracts from the inflorescences and leaves, respectively.</p></div>