Application of watershed-based tank system model for rainwater harvesting and irrigation in India

The SOFTANK model optimally designs the watershed-based tank system by simulating field, tank, and groundwater balances. We applied this model to a small watershed consisting of six tanks (small reservoirs) in the semiarid region of India. We evaluated the existing tank system in this watershed and compared it to a one-tank system. Results showed that one tank at the outlet of the watershed would have been more beneficial [with benefit-cost (BC) ratio of 1.80] than the existing six-tank system (with BC ratio of 1.71). Finally, we performed the analysis for obtaining the optimal tank system for the watershed, and we found that the tanks for irrigation purposes are not economical for the small watershed. The groundwater source was enough for irrigation, so any additional investment in the tanks would be uneconomical. The results demonstrate the importance of the watershed-based tank system approach to design.