Appendix 2: (A).High resolution (1Hz) GPS track and associated movement data of Himalayan Vulture. (B). Wing area and weight data of Himalayan Vulture from Behavioural adaptations to flight into thin air

(A). Data from Sherub et al., 2016. The start point of each identified thermalling circle is provided with annotated air density and ground elevation, and ground speed during the circle (provided by the GPS), and wind and air speed (estimated using the Sherub et al approach). Circle radius and change of elevation with the circle are included as well. Mean vertical soaring speed was calculated from the change of elevation. Circles are considered continuous thermalling movement for 30 seconds. X component refers to horizontal latitudinal movement and Y to horizontal longitudinal. (B). Legend: Data from Sherub et al., 2016. Wing area and wing loading measurements for individual Himalayan Griffon Vultures. Individuals whose name is "Griffon" were measured, but were not fitted with a GPS tag and did not participate in movement study. Wing area was measured following Pennycuick's method: the wing area was traced on a gridded paper chart. A photograph of the wing-trace was taken, and the number of occupied pixel was determined using Adobe Photoshop, and converted from pixels to m^2 using the dimensions of the gridded chart.