Anti-metastatic effect of deoxyelephantopin from <i>Elephantopus scaber</i> in A549 lung cancer cells <i>in vitro</i>

<div><p>In this study, we focused on the <i>in vitro</i> anti-metastatic effects of deoxyelephantopin (DOE), a sesquiterpene lactone from <i>Elephantopus scaber</i> on lung cancer A549 cells. DOE significantly decreased the metastatic potential of A549 cells as demonstrated by transwell invasion and migration assay. DOE inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, urokinase-type plasminogen activator and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor at transcript level. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) mRNA levels was up-regulated in A549 tumour cells without any change in TIMP-1 expression after DOE treatment. DOE inhibited the protein levels of p-ERK1/2 and p-Akt in A549 cells but it activated p-JNK, p-p38 protein expression. NF-κB and IκBα expressions were down-regulated in DOE-treated cells. All these results demonstrated that DOE has shown anti-metastatic activity against A549 tumour cells.</p></div>