Anti-infective assessment of Senecio smithioides (Asteraceae) and isolation of 9-oxoeuryopsin, a furanoeremophilane-type sesquiterpene with antiplasmodial activity

The search for anti-infective activity in the antipyretic plant Senecio smithioides was conducted. Petroleum ether (PE), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and hydroethanolic (96% EtOH) extracts, and compounds 9-oxoeuryopsin (1), epoxydecompostin (2) and senecionine (3) were obtained from the aerial parts. All extracts and 1 were tested against chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum (ref. chloroquine), Trypanosoma cruzi (ref. nifurtimox), Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania donovani (ref. pentamidine), Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (ref. gentamicin) and, Neurospora crassa and Candida albicans (ref. ketoconazole). The PE extract exhibited the strongest in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum IC50 < 1.0 μg/mL. 1 was established as a potent antiplasmodial compound with an IC50 = 1.2 μg/mL, 5.2 μM. Other antiparasitic activities were recorded for all extracts and 1. Antibacterial and antifungal activity was negligible.