Another potential cost of tail autotomy: tail loss may result in high ectoparasite loads in Sceloporus lizards: Supplementary Material

Tail autotomy is a common phenomenon in lizards that increases the chances of immediate survival during a predation event or agonistic encounter. However, despite short-term benefits, tail regeneration may also impose costs. Several studies have demonstrated that tail loss compromises other vital functions such as lipid storage, reproduction, and the immune system. Several lizard species are hosts of mites and ticks. Here we evaluated in three lizard species from the genus <i>Sceloporus</i>, whether individuals that have lost their tails and invested energy in tail regeneration are more susceptible to ectoparasites. Using a multimodel inference framework, we examined if tail loss and regeneration, as well as sex, body condition, and season (dry or rainy) predict ectoparasite load. Our results indicate that investing energy and resources in tail regeneration compromises defence against ectoparasites. These costs differed between sexes and among species. Overall, ectoparasite load increases during the rainy season and is on average higher in males. In <i>S. grammicus</i>, during the rainy season, males with regenerated tails and in poor body condition had more ectoparasites than males with intact tails in good body condition. In <i>S. megalepidurus,</i> we observed the same effect during the rainy season but in females rather than males. In <i>S. torquatus,</i> we found no effect of tail loss on ectoparasite load. We discuss the possibility that differences observed among species reflect differences in both species-specific physiological trade-offs and local environmental conditions