Analysis of essential oils from <i>Voacanga africana</i> seeds at different hydrodistillation extraction stages: chemical composition, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity

<div><p>In this study, essential oils from <i>Voacanga africana</i> seeds at different extraction stages were investigated. In the chemical composition analysis, 27 compounds representing 86.69–95.03% of the total essential oils were identified and quantified. The main constituents in essential oils were terpenoids, alcohols and fatty acids accounting for 15.03–24.36%, 21.57–34.43% and 33.06–57.37%, respectively. Moreover, the analysis also revealed that essential oils from different extraction stages possessed different chemical compositions. In the antioxidant evaluation, all analysed oils showed similar antioxidant behaviours, and the concentrations of essential oils providing 50% inhibition of DPPH-scavenging activity (IC<sub>50</sub>) were about 25 mg/mL. In the antimicrobial experiments, essential oils from different extraction stages exhibited different antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial activity of oils was affected by extraction stages. By controlling extraction stages, it is promising to obtain essential oils with desired antimicrobial activities.</p></div>