Amorfrutins Are Natural PPARγ Agonists with Potent Anti-inflammatory Properties

Amorfrutins are isoprenoid-substituted benzoic acid derivatives, which were found in <i>Amorpha fruticosa </i>L. (bastard indigo) and in <i>Glycyrrhiza foetida </i>Desf. (licorice). Recently, amorfrutins were shown to be selective activators of the nuclear receptor PPARγ. Here, we investigated the effects and PPARγ-based mechanisms of reducing inflammation in colon cells by treatment with amorfrutins. In TNF-α-stimulated colon cells amorfrutin A (<b>1</b>) reduced significantly the expression and secretion of several inflammation mediators, in part due to interaction with PPARγ. These results support the hypothesis that amorfrutins may have the potential to treat inflammation disorders such as chronic inflammatory bowel diseases.