Amazon canga: the unique vegetation of Carajás revealed by the list of seed plants

<p></p><p>Abstract The Floresta Nacional de Carajás (FLONA of Carajás) and the Parque Nacional dos Campos Ferruginosos (PNCF) are home to canga vegetation where 856 species distributed in 116 families of seed plants were recorded. The richest families were Poaceae (86), Fabaceae (65) and Rubiaceae (46) and the best represented habit was herbaceous. Two genera, 24 species and one subspecies are considered endemic from the canga of the studied area. Within the FLONA of Carajás, the Serra Norte was the best sampled site, and is home for 659 species of seed plants, while 545 species were recorded for the Serra Sul. Approximately 60% of the species documented, including the endemics, have no record within the PNCF. Through the taxonomic list here presented, it was possible to demonstrate considerable distinction between the canga of the Serra dos Carajás and the same formation in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, in Minas Gerais, with little correspondence between these two lists and the one from Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul state. The richness and singularity of the regional flora, which includes many endemisms, associated to the current threats to these environments due to mineral exploration, point to the need for careful and consistent planning to ensure the conservation of the flora of the canga of Carajás.</p><p></p>