Adjuvant volumetric-modulated arc therapy with simultaneous integrated boost in endometrial cancer. Planning and toxicity comparison

<div><p></p><p><i>Objective.</i> To report dosimetric and acute toxicity data in prospectively enrolled high-intermediate risk endometrial cancer (HIR-EC) patients postoperatively irradiated by simultaneous integrated boost volumetric modulated arc therapy (SIB-VMAT). <i>Methods.</i> Thirty prospectively enrolled HIR-EC patients were postoperatively treated by SIB-VMAT. Target coverage, dose homogeneity, and sparing of organs at risk (OARs) were compared with corresponding data retrieved from an historical control (30 consecutive selected matched patients) treated by concomitant boost three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT CB) from a previously published study (ADA-I trial). All patients received 45 Gy on pelvic lymph nodes plus 10 Gy boost on the vaginal vault. <i>Results.</i> The SIB-VMAT technique produced more inhomogeneous plans than 3D CRT CB, but showed significantly better conformity index (CIs) for both PTVs. SIB-VMAT was associated with significant reduction in the irradiated small bowel (SB) volume compared with 3D CRT CB for all dose range > 10 Gy (e.g. V<sub>15</sub>: 163.5 cm<sup>3</sup> vs. 341.3 cm<sup>3</sup>, p = 0.001 and V<sub>40</sub>: 43.8 cm<sup>3</sup> vs. 85.2 cm<sup>3</sup>, p = 0.008). With regard to bladder and rectum, SIB-VMAT showed a significant sparing advantage at all dose levels with respect to 3D CRT CB retrieved plans. Moreover, overall OARs D<sub>mean</sub> were significantly reduced by the SIB-VMAT (p = 0.001). According to CTCAE v.4.0, acute (within three months) GI toxicities were more frequent in 3D CRT CB versus SIB-VMAT (90.0% vs. 66.7%; p-value 0.028). <i>Conclusions.</i> Compared to data from a historical database of patients administered 3D CRT CB, SIB-VMAT significantly improves the dose conformity and sparing of OARs in HIR-EC patients undergoing postoperative radiotherapy. The improvement in terms of acute toxicity justifies further prospective clinical evaluation.</p></div>