Adequacy of energy and macronutrient intake of food supplements for athletes
ABSTRACT Objective To assess how much food supplements contribute to the nutritional adequacy of energy and macronutrients in relation those recommended for athletes. Methods This was a cross sectional study was composed of 182 athletes from 19 sports (150 men and 32 women) with a mean age, weight, height and body mass index of 23.8±7.5 years, 73.7±15.6kg, 1.7±0.1m, 24.2±4.0kg/m², respectively. The 24 hours dietary recall was applied to assess intake and the Multiple Source Method to evaluate usual intake. We used the t-test, Mann-Whitney test, Analysis of Variance and Kruskal-Wallis for comparative analysis among the diets, gender and types of groups, and the comparison of two-proportion test to assess the diets Food and Food and Supplementation. Results Of the athletes studied, less than half used dietary supplements (39.0%). Energy intake was below the recommended (52.7%) in Food diet, and 45.6% in Food and Supplementation diet. The mean total of carbohydrate inadequacy (g.kg-1.day-1) was high for athletes of both genders and between Food and Food and Supplementation diets. The protein intake was above the recommended levels in Food diet (23.1%) and in Food and Supplementation diet (33.5%). The lipid intake was also above the recommended dietary levels in Food (47.3%) and in Food and Supplementation diets (50.0%). Conclusion The use of supplements did not significantly reduce inadequacies of diet and the athletes’ intake of calories and carbohydrates was below the recommended for these groups. However, the protein intake was above the recommended levels for athletes.