Additional file 6: Figure S5. of Multi-walled carbon nanotube induces nitrative DNA damage in human lung epithelial cells via HMGB1-RAGE interaction and Toll-like receptor 9 activation

ROS generation and oxidative DNA damage in MWCNT-treated cells. A549 cells were treated with 1 μg/ml MWCNT for indicated durations at 37 °C. (A) Flow cytometric fluorescence distributions of MWCNT-treated cells. Five μM CM-H2DCFDA was added 30 min before the end of the incubation. Intracellular peroxide formation was examined by flow cytometry. Broken line, control; solid line, MWCNT-treated cells. Each peak shows averaged fluorescence distribution of 3 independent samples. (B) Amount of 8-oxodG in MWCNT-treated cells. DNA was extracted from MWCNT-treated cells and 8-oxodG formation was analyzed with HPLC coupled with an ECD as described in Methods. (TIF 219 kb)