Additional file 4: Figure S4. of Targeting mitochondrial complex I using BAY 87-2243 reduces melanoma tumor growth

Melanoma cells are sensitive to BAY 87-2243-mediated Complex I inhibition by undergoing an energy crisis and ROS-mediated cell death. Under limiting glucose conditions (5 mM), the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor BAY 87-2243 induces a metabolic switch from OXPHOS to glycolysis in melanoma cells. Results of BAY 87-2243-mediated complex I inhibition include a reduction in the total cellular ATP pool and therefore AMPK activation, suppression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and the induction of oxidative stress. ROS stress is marked by stabilization of NRF2, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, and AMPK as well as cell death signaling marked by cleaved PARP.