Additional file 2: Figure S2. of Parallel or convergent evolution in human population genomic data revealed by genotype networks

2016-08-02T05:00:00Z (GMT) by Ali R. Vahdati Andreas Wagner
Cycles in haplotype networks illustrated with the example of a hexagon and an octagon. Circles (nodes) correspond to genotypes. An edge connects two nodes if they differ by a single mutation. Lettering next to each node indicates the nucleotides at which two genotypes differ. Edge labels show changes required to create a genotype from its neighbor, e.g., “A20G” indicates a change from A to G at position 20 of the hypothetical sequence. a) hypothetical hexagon in which six nucleotide changes occur, two each at positions 10, 20 and 30. If one starts from genotype 1, this genotype mutates twice and produces genotypes 2 and 3. Those genotypes in turn mutate to produce genotypes 4 and 5. Then either genotype 4 mutates at position 30 from A to T, or genotype 5 mutates at position 10 from A to G, or both of these mutations happen together, to produce genotype 6. This can be happen when there are evolutionary constraints that restrict other mutations. Recombination can also be responsible for this pattern. This pattern will be the same if one starts from any other node. b) hypothetical octagon in which eight nucleotide changes occur, two each at positions 10, 20, 30, and 40. Same pattern that was explained for a) can be explained here, with the only difference that there are more positions that are mutating. (PDF 193 kb)