Additional file 1: of The participation of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 released by astrocytes in the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease

The effects of IGFBP-3 on the phosphorylation of tau (AT180). To confirm the effect of IGFBP-3 on phosphorylation of tau, the same experiment was done by using another antibody, AT180. Primary murine neurons were treated with Aβ1–42 (1 μM), IGF-1 (100 ng/ml) and IGFBP-3 (100 ng/ml), as designated in the figure. Western blotting analysis of primary murine neurons revealed that Aβ induced tau phosphorylation of murine primary neurons after 48 h of treatment (A and B, n = 4, p < 0.01). Phosphorylated tau normalized by β actin, is shown, converting the value of Aβ-treatment into 1(B). Although IGF-1 suppressed tau phosphorylation, IGFBP-3 counteracted the effect of IGF-1 (A and B, p < 0.01). * indicates statistically significant differences (*p < 0.01). This result was compatible with the one from AT8. (PDF 222 kb)