Adaptive introgression from distant Caribbean islands contributed to the diversification of a microendemic adaptive radiation of trophic specialist pupfishes

2017-08-10T17:29:45Z (GMT) by Emilie J. Richards Christopher H. Martin
<div><p>Rapid diversification often involves complex histories of gene flow that leave variable and conflicting signatures of evolutionary relatedness across the genome. Identifying the extent and source of variation in these evolutionary relationships can provide insight into the evolutionary mechanisms involved in rapid radiations. Here we compare the discordant evolutionary relationships associated with species phenotypes across 42 whole genomes from a sympatric adaptive radiation of <i>Cyprinodon</i> pupfishes endemic to San Salvador Island, Bahamas and several outgroup pupfish species in order to understand the rarity of these trophic specialists within the larger radiation of <i>Cyprinodon</i>. 82% of the genome depicts close evolutionary relationships among the San Salvador Island species reflecting their geographic proximity, but the vast majority of variants fixed between specialist species lie in regions with discordant topologies. Top candidate adaptive introgression regions include signatures of selective sweeps and adaptive introgression of genetic variation from a single population in the northwestern Bahamas into each of the specialist species. Hard selective sweeps of genetic variation on San Salvador Island contributed 5 times more to speciation of trophic specialists than adaptive introgression of Caribbean genetic variation; however, four of the 11 introgressed regions came from a single distant island and were associated with the primary axis of oral jaw divergence within the radiation. For example, standing variation in a proto-oncogene (<i>ski</i>) known to have effects on jaw size introgressed into one San Salvador Island specialist from an island 300 km away approximately 10 kya. The complex emerging picture of the origins of adaptive radiation on San Salvador Island indicates that multiple sources of genetic variation contributed to the adaptive phenotypes of novel trophic specialists on the island. Our findings suggest that a suite of factors, including rare adaptive introgression, may be necessary for adaptive radiation in addition to ecological opportunity.</p></div>