Absolute Quantification of Uric Acid in Human Urine Using Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering with the Standard Addition Method

High levels of uric acid in urine and serum can be indicative of hypertension and the pregnancy related condition, preeclampsia. We have developed a simple, cost-effective, portable surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) approach for the routine analysis of uric acid at clinically relevant levels in urine patient samples. This approach, combined with the standard addition method (SAM), allows for the absolute quantification of uric acid directly in a complex matrix such as that from human urine. Results are highly comparable and in very good agreement with HPLC results, with an average <9% difference in predictions between the two analytical approaches across all samples analyzed, with SERS demonstrating a 60-fold reduction in acquisition time compared with HPLC. For the first time, clinical prepreeclampsia patient samples have been used for quantitative uric acid detection using a simple, rapid colloidal SERS approach without the need for complex data analysis.