A panel of clinical and neuropathological features of cerebrovascular disease through the novel neuroimaging methods

<div><p>ABSTRACT. The last decade has witnessed substantial progress in acquiring diagnostic biomarkers for the diagnostic workup of cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Advanced neuroimaging methods not only provide a strategic contribution for the differential diagnosis of vascular dementia (VaD) and vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), but also help elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms ultimately leading to small vessel disease (SVD) throughout its course. Objective: In this review, the novel imaging methods, both structural and metabolic, were summarized and their impact on the diagnostic workup of age-related CVD was analysed. Methods: An electronic search between January 2010 and 2017 was carried out on PubMed/MEDLINE, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge and EMBASE. Results: The use of full functional multimodality in simultaneous Magnetic Resonance (MR)/Positron emission tomography (PET) may potentially improve the clinical characterization of VCI-VaD; for structural imaging, MRI at 3.0 T enables higher-resolution scanning with greater imaging matrices, thinner slices and more detail on the anatomical structure of vascular lesions. Conclusion: Although the importance of most of these techniques in the clinical setting has yet to be recognized, there is great expectancy in achieving earlier and more refined therapeutic interventions for the effective management of VCI-VaD.</p></div>