A new species of <i>Gomphotherium</i> (Proboscidea, Mammalia) from China and the evolution of <i>Gomphotherium</i> in Eurasia

<p><i>Gomphotherium</i> is a stem taxon of Elephantida that was widespread in Africa, Eurasia, and North America during the Miocene. However, the evolution of this genus is greatly debated because of morphological variation among the species of <i>Gomphotherium</i>. In the present work, we describe a cranium and accompanying material of <i>Gomphotherium</i> from the late middle Miocene Hujialiang Formation of Linxia Basin, China. The new material shows dental similarities to <i>G. subtapiroideum</i> from the middle Miocene of Europe; however, it displays some cranial, mandibular, and dental feature combinations that are distinct from the known species of <i>Gomphotherium</i>. Therefore, a new species, <i>G. tassyi</i>, is established. We further study the phylogeny of <i>Gomphotherium</i> by cladistic analysis and recognize four groups. The most basal ‘<i>G. annectens</i> group’ is a paraphyletic group that includes <i>G. annectens, G. cooperi, G. sylvaticum</i>, and <i>G. hannibali</i>. The African taxa, <i>G. libycum</i> and <i>G. pygmaeus</i>, constitute a monophyletic group that has not been named. The ‘<i>G. angustidens</i> group’ is a monophyletic group that includes <i>G. inopinatum, G. mongoliense, G. connexum</i>, and <i>G. angustidens</i>. In addition, the ‘derived <i>Gomphotherium</i> group,’ which includes <i>G. subtapiroideum, G. tassyi, G. wimani, G. browni, G. productum</i>, and <i>G. steinheimense</i>, was widely distributed in Eurasia and North America during the middle and late Miocene.</p> <p>http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:28B89A74-7FF6-41DB-BA3C-C4CDD200A30F</p> <p>SUPPLEMENTAL DATA—Supplemental materials are available for this article for free at <a href="http://www.tandfonline.com/UJVP" target="_blank">www.tandfonline.com/UJVP</a></p> <p>Citation for this article: Wang, S.-Q., Y. Li, J. Duangkrayom, X.-W. Yang, W. He, and S.-Q. Chen. 2017. A new species of <i>Gomphotherium</i> (Proboscidea, Mammalia) from China and the evolution of <i>Gomphotherium</i> in Eurasia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2017.1318284.</p>