A likelihood-based approach for multivariate one-sided tests with missing data

Inequality-restricted hypotheses testing methods containing multivariate one-sided testing methods are useful in practice, especially in multiple comparison problems. In practice, multivariate and longitudinal data often contain missing values since it may be difficult to observe all values for each variable. However, although missing values are common for multivariate data, statistical methods for multivariate one-sided tests with missing values are quite limited. In this article, motivated by a dataset in a recent collaborative project, we develop two likelihood-based methods for multivariate one-sided tests with missing values, where the missing data patterns can be arbitrary and the missing data mechanisms may be non-ignorable. Although non-ignorable missing data are not testable based on observed data, statistical methods addressing this issue can be used for sensitivity analysis and might lead to more reliable results, since ignoring informative missingness may lead to biased analysis. We analyse the real dataset in details under various possible missing data mechanisms and report interesting findings which are previously unavailable. We also derive some asymptotic results and evaluate our new tests using simulations.