A comparative study of metropolitan multi-nucleation: suburban centres and commuter flows within the metropolitan areas of Atlanta, USA, and Melbourne, Australia

<div>The suburbanization of various functions has generated Suburban Downtowns or typical Edge Cities in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. On the other hand, Melbourne, the capital city of the state of Victoria, Australia, has managed to control its suburban centres. The CBD in Melbourne still retains comprehensive central functions for the metropolitan area, but large scale shopping malls have also been developed in the suburbs. The regional structures of these two metropolitan areas, prima facie, seem different. However, in this paper, we would like to highlight a common feature present in both areas, based on our examination of commuter flows. This phenomenon involves an interdependent, cross-suburb flow structure, which is emerging in many urban areas in the 21st century.</div>