A General Protocol for Addressing Speciation of the Active Catalyst Applied to Ligand-Accelerated Enantioselective C(sp3)–H Bond Arylation

The potential role of dimeric catalyst species on or off the catalytic cycle is considered for a case of Pd-catalyzed C–H functionalization, leading to the development of a general experimental protocol that uses the reaction itself to report on the presence and role of dimeric species in asymmetric catalytic reactions.