E: environmental model, S: spatial model, constructed from MEM variables, E | S: environmental model without spatial patterns within each spatial scale, S | E: spatial model without environmental patterns within each spatial scale, R^{2}_{adj}: data variation explained by the model (values are in percentage), DF: degrees of freedom of model. Significant models are in bold.

Environmental model constructed from the altitude variable; ^{b}Spatial model constructed from the MEM1 and MEM2 variables; ^{c}Spatial model constructed from the MEM4, MEM9, MEM5, MEM3, and MEM1 variables; ^{d}Spatial model constructed from all MEM variables; ^{e}Environmental model constructed from the altitude, green cover and land slope variables; ^{f}Spatial model constructed from the MEM1 variable; ^{g}Spatial model constructed from the MEM4, MEM9, MEM3, MEM7, MEM1, MEM2, and MEM5 variables; ^{h}constructed from the MEM4, MEM3, MEM2, MEM5, MEM7, and MEM1 variables.

Partitioning of variation in dung beetle communities at three spatial scales using redundancy analysis on composition, abundance and biomass.